On June 19, 2017, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that senior federal officials—including former Attorney General John Ashcroft and former FBI Director Robert Mueller—are not subject to damages claims based on the manner in which they conducted their investigation into the 9/11 terrorist attacks. The decision was a victory for WLF and its clients, five former Attorneys General (William Barr, Alberto Gonzales, Edwin Meese, Michael Mukasey, and Dick Thornburgh) and two former FBI Directors (William Sessions and William Webster). The Court agreed with arguments in WLF’s briefs that, in most instances, it should be up to Congress to decide whether to authorize suits alleging violations of the Constitution. Congress has not done so in this instance, and, the Court ruled, the courts should not “imply” the existence of a cause of action in national-security cases of this sort. WLF argued that any serious misconduct by government officials can be addressed by suits for injunctive relief.