The U.S. Supreme Court issued a decision on February 28, 2006, reversing an appeals court decision that expanded the reach of the price-fixing laws with respect to joint ventures. WLF had filed a brief on September 12, 2005, asking the Justices to reverse the appeals court decision. The litigation involves two joint ventures formed by Texaco and Shell Oil to take over the gasoline wholesaling and retailing operations of those companies in the United States. The “Texaco” and “Shell” names continue to exist as separate brands under the joint ventures. The court below, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, ruled that the companies could be held liable for price-fixing because the joint ventures priced Texaco and Shell gasoline the same. The case was important to the business community because the Ninth Circuit’s decision, by treating a bona fide joint venture as a cartel, created the potential for antitrust liability for joint ventures in a variety of contexts.