On May 16, 2016, the U.S. Supreme Court reversed a Ninth Circuit decision that would have allowed uninjured class-action plaintiffs to sue in federal court for bare, technical violations of federal law. In a 6-2 decision, the Court held that although the Ninth Circuit correctly concluded that Thomas Robins, the named plaintiff in the case, had suffered a particularized injury, the appeals court had overlooked the additional requirement that the injury be “concrete.” After elaborating at length on the injury-in-fact requirement for standing to sue in federal court, the Court vacated the Ninth Circuit’s opinion and remanded the case directing the appeals court to determine whether the injury alleged by Robins was sufficiently concrete. The decision was a victory for WLF, which filed a brief in the case arguing that Article III of the Constitution bars federal courts from hearing claims brought by plaintiffs who suffered no concrete harm from alleged statutory violations.