On August 9, 2005, WLF filed a formal complaint with the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) against Texas, charging that Texas is violating the civil rights of U.S. citizens who live outside the State. WLF charged that Texas is violating federal law by offering in-state college tuition rates to illegal aliens who live in Texas, while denying those same rates to nonresident U.S. citizens. WLF called on DHS to bring appropriate enforcement action against Texas, including ordering Texas to refund excessive tuition charges. The federal statute at issue, 8 U.S.C. § 1623, was adopted in 1996 and is designed to ensure that any State that offers discounted, in-state tuition rates to illegal aliens on the basis of their residence in the State must offer the same discounted rates to all U.S. citizens. In 2001, Texas adopted a law that allows illegal aliens to attend public universities at in-state rates but has refused to extend that same opportunity to U.S. citizens living outside Texas.