On November 3, 2008, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit in Chicago upheld in large measure a $156 million award to the parents of David Boim, a 17-year-old U.S. citizen murdered by members of Hamas while visiting Israel. The appeals court affirmed the judgment against two groups that fund Hamas and allowed the case to continue against a third fundraising group, the Holy Land Foundation for Relief and Development (HLF). The decision was a victory for WLF, which filed a brief urging the en banc appeals court to overturn a three-judge Seventh Circuit panel, which in December 2007 had overturned the Boim family’s trial court victory. The en banc court agreed with WLF that those who donate funds to a known terrorist group are responsible under U.S. law for the group’s actions — even if the donors contend that they only intended to support the group’s “humanitarian” activities.